原文地址: https://chefstricks.info/the-best-ways-to-remove-pesticides-from-produce/

原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:后羿A射日


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正文翻译:

The Best Ways to Remove Pesticides FromProduce

去除农药残留的最好方法

Even the less-than-cautious among us stillprobably give their fruit and vegetables a quick rinse under the tap beforeeating them. That’s in an effort not only to wash off dirt and debris, but alsoto remove any pesticides. You might go even further by using a vegetable brushor a store-bought veggie wash. How effective is all of that, really? Moreimportantly, how worried should you be about pesticides in the first place?

现在就算是神经最大条的人,吃果蔬前也会用自来水快速地冲一下。不仅是要洗掉上面的尘土、垃圾,更主要的是想冲掉上面残留的农药。当然还可以选择蔬菜清洗刷,或者从超市购买蔬菜清洗剂。但是效果到底怎么样呢?更重要的是,我们需要对农药残留谈虎色变吗?

Scrub A Dub Dub

洗刷刷

Lucky for you, science has tackled thisproblem before. Here’s how effective the most popular produce-washing methodsreally are:

幸运的是,科学已经解决这个问题了。下面是一些最流行的农药残留去除方法的效果比较:

·Plain water: A 2008 review published in the journalFood Research International found that tap water only reduced the residue offive different pesticides by 20 percent, at most — but at least it’ssomething. Distilled or filtered water may be more effective, and agood several-minute soak can go even further, especially for cuttingdown on bacteria.

自来水

2008年,《国际食品研究》期刊登过一篇文章,文章称自来水冲洗最多只能去除20%的农药残留。蒸馏水或者过滤水可能效果更好。当然,如果果蔬在水中泡几分钟,效果会更好,更有助于减少细菌。

·Soap: Soap isn’t meant for washing food, and it’s not clear howeffective it is against pesticides. It could also possibly seep into theproduce, making you ingest another non-food chemical on top of the ones youwere trying to wash away. We don’t recommend it.

肥皂

肥皂不能用来清洗食物,肥皂去除农药残留的效果未知。肥皂还可能会渗入到果蔬中。清洗的目的是去除农药残留,不是为了往里面加东西。不推荐使用肥皂清洗蔬菜和水果。

·Commercial veggie washes: A study in 2000 by theConnecticut Agricultural Experiment Station found that washing certain fruitsand vegetables with a commercial veggie wash was no more effective than rinsingthem under tap water for a minute when it came to getting rid of pesticides.Researchers at the University of Maine got the same result forreducing bacteria. The verdict: don’t waste your money.

果蔬清洁剂

2000年,康涅狄格州农业研究所的研究表明,在清除农药残留方面,果蔬清洁剂的效果并不比自来水好。缅因州大学的研究得出了同样的结论。所以,我们的结论是:别浪费钱了。

·Vinegar: The Food Research review found that washing tomatoesin a vinegar solution significantly reduced the residues of six differentpesticides, some by as much as 94 percent. And in 2007, a Cook’sIllustrated test found that vinegar reduced 98 percent of the bacteria onapples and pears. Cheap, nontoxic — what’s not to like?Try filling a spray bottle with one part vinegar to three parts water and keepit next to the sink.

食用醋

国际食物研究机构发现,用醋溶液洗西红柿,可以明显去除六种不同的农药残留,部分去除率能达到94%。2007年美食杂志《Cook’s Illustrated》做了一项实验,结果表明醋可以去除苹果和梨表面98%的细菌。而且还便宜、无毒。我们建议在厨房水槽旁边放一个装有醋水比1:3的喷壶。

·Baking soda: In October 2017, researchers from the Universityof Massachusetts published a study in the journal Agricultural and FoodChemistry that said soaking apples in a baking soda and water solution for 12–15 minutescan remove almost every trace of pesticides from the fruit’s surface. If youhave the time, this one’s a winner for sure.

小苏打

2017年10月,马萨诸塞大学的研究人员将研究成果发表在《农业与食品化学》杂志上,称将苹果在小苏打和水溶液中浸泡12 – 15分钟,可以去除表面几乎全部农药残留。当然如果有多时间,这个办法肯定是最好的。

It should be mentioned that none of thesefixes can remove pesticides that have already seeped into the fruits andvegetables. If you’re really worried (which you probably shouldn’t be), generalpreparation methods like peeling, cooking, and canning can remove a substantialamount of pesticides throughout the produce. Peeling goes further than washingby removing the layer that the pesticides have reached; cooking and canningworks because many pesticides degrade in heat.

需要提到的是,以上方法无法去除渗透到水果内部的农药。如果你还不放心的话,可以削皮、烹饪和制作罐头,这样就能完全去除农药残留了。不过,其实农药不会渗到水果内部。削皮肯定要比洗涤效果好;而烹饪和制作罐头,在加热过程中农药就降解了。

A Few Caveats

注意事项

Why not just buy organic? you might ask.Contrary to popular belief, organic produce is grown with pesticides, too. Thepesticides just can’t be synthetic (and as we’ve mentioned before, whethera chemical is synthesized from scratch or just perfected from a natural sourcedoesn’t say anything about its safety).

可能有人会问,为什么不直接买有机食物呢?与大众观点相反,有机食物也会用到农药。只是不能使用合成农药而已。我们曾经说过,不管是化学合成农药还是天然农药,在毒性上区别不大。

In 2011, researchers at UC Davisfound that the organic versions of the so-called “dirtydozen” list of fruits and vegetables that pose the highest pesticiderisk aren’t any safer. They also say that pesticides on those fruitsand vegetables were way, way below the acceptable limit set by the EPA, andthat the list “lacks scientific credibility” to boot.

2011年,加州大学戴维斯分校的研究人员发现,所谓的农药残留最高的十二样果蔬,其实这十二种果蔬的有机产品,在农药残留方面与常规果蔬没有什么区别。研究人员还说,这些果蔬的农药残留水平远远低于美国环保局的允许值,该名单缺乏可靠的科学依据。

But if you’re still concerned, take a fewprecautions. Keep a spray bottle of diluted vinegar on hand for quick rinsesand baking soda for when you have the time. Peel or cook the fruits and veggiesyou’re most worried about. But don’t stop eating them. The science is in onthat front, and it says that you should eat your fruits and veggies if you wantto live a healthy life.

不过如果你不相信科学的话,那就采取点预防措施。手头放一个装了食用醋稀释液的喷壶,或者有时间的话,将果蔬放在小苏打水里泡上十来分钟。如果还是不放心的话,那就削皮或者烹饪。不管怎么样,千万不能不吃果蔬。科学研究表明,要想健康就得多吃水果和蔬菜。

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